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Anaphylaxis induced by horsefly bites: Identification of a 69 kd IgE-binding salivary gland protein from Chrysops spp. (Diptera Tabanidae) by western blot analysis

      Anaphylaxis from insect venom is mostly caused by Hymenoptera stings but has been also reported after bites by various blood-feeding arthropods. The horseflies (Tabanidae, comprising some taxonomically poorly defined subgroups such as deerflies, yellowflies, or clegs) is a hematophagous family of Diptera, with several species that feed on human beings. Bites by tabanids are painful and may induce a local wheal and flare response. However, they have also been believed to cause severe systemic reactions.
      • Frazier CA.
      Biting insects.
      • Wilbur RD
      • Evans R.
      An immunologic evaluation of deerfly hypersensitivity.
      • de Maat-Bleeker F
      • van Bronswijk EMH.
      Allergic reactions caused by bites from blood-sucking insects of the Tabanidae family, species Haematopota pluvialis (L.).
      • Freye HB
      • Litwin C.
      Coexistent anaphylaxis to diptera and hymenoptera.
      The involvement of specific IgE antibodies in these reactions has been proposed in earlier studies.
      • Wilbur RD
      • Evans R.
      An immunologic evaluation of deerfly hypersensitivity.
      • de Maat-Bleeker F
      • van Bronswijk EMH.
      Allergic reactions caused by bites from blood-sucking insects of the Tabanidae family, species Haematopota pluvialis (L.).
      • Freye HB
      • Litwin C.
      Coexistent anaphylaxis to diptera and hymenoptera.
      The insufficiency of currently available diagnostic tools in the analysis of hypersensitivity to biting insects, however, makes the stigma of anecdote adhere to many reports and may have caused general underreporting of anaphylaxis caused by non-Hymenoptera insects in the literature.
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