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Trajectories of adiposity indicators and association with asthma and lung function in urban minority children

      Background

      A relationship between adiposity and asthma has been described in some cohort studies, but little is known about trajectories of adiposity throughout early childhood among children at high risk for developing asthma in urban United States cities. Moreover, early life trajectories of adipokines that have metabolic and immunologic properties have not been comprehensively investigated.

      Objective

      Our objective was to characterize trajectories of adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort of predominately Black and Latinx children (n = 418) using several different repeated measures including body mass index (BMI) z score, bioimpedance analysis, leptin, and adiponectin in the first 10 years of life.

      Methods

      In a longitudinal birth cohort of predominately Black and Latinx children, we used repeated annual measures of BMI, bioimpedance analysis (ie, percentage of body fat), leptin, and adiponectin to create trajectories across the first 10 years of life. Across those trajectories, we compared asthma diagnosis and multiple lung function outcomes, including spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and methacholine response.

      Results

      Three trajectories were observed for BMI z score, bioimpedance analysis, and leptin and 2 for adiponectin. There was no association between trajectories of BMI, percentage of body fat, leptin, or adipokine and asthma diagnosis or lung function (P > .05).

      Conclusions

      Trajectories of adiposity were not associated with asthma or lung function in children at high risk for developing asthma. Risk factors related to geography as well as social and demographic factors unique to specific populations could explain the lack of association and should be considered in obesity and asthma studies.

      Graphical abstract

      Key words

      Abbreviations used:

      BIA (Bioimpedance analysis), BMI (Body mass index), CRP (C-reactive protein), FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FVC (Forced vital capacity), LCMM (Latent class mixed models), URECA (Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma)
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