Advertisement

Update on the use of immunoglobulin in human disease: A review of evidence

Published:December 29, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.09.023
      Human immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous or subcutaneous administration are the cornerstone of treatment in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases affecting the humoral immune system. Intravenous preparations have a number of important uses in the treatment of other diseases in humans as well, some for which acceptable treatment alternatives do not exist. We provide an update of the evidence-based guideline on immunoglobulin therapy, last published in 2006. Given the potential risks and inherent scarcity of human immunoglobulin, careful consideration of its indications and administration is warranted.

      Key words

      Abbreviations used:

      AD (Atopic dermatitis), APS (Anti–phospholipid antibody syndrome), AT (Ataxia telangiectasia), BMI (Body mass index), CIDP (Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy), CLL (Chronic lymphocytic leukemia), CVID (Common variable immunodeficiency), DSA (Donor-specific HLA antigen), FDA (US Food and Drug Administration), GBS (Guillain-Barré syndrome), GVHD (Graft-versus-host disease), HAART (Highly active antiretroviral treatment), ISR (Infusion site reaction), ITP (Immune thrombocytopenic purpura), IV (Intravenous), IVIG (Intravenous immunoglobulin), JIA (Juvenile idiopathic arthritis), KD (Kawasaki disease), LEMS (Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome), MG (Myasthenia gravis), MM (Multiple myeloma), MMN (Multifocal motor neuropathy), MS (Multiple sclerosis), PAN (Polyarteritis nodosa), PE (Plasma exchange), PI (Primary immunodeficiency), RA (Rheumatoid arthritis), RCT (Randomized controlled trial), RSV (Respiratory syncytial virus), SC (Subcutaneous), SCID (Severe combined immunodeficiency), SCIG (Subcutaneous immunoglobulin), SCORAD (Severity scoring of Alzheimer disease), THI (Transient hypogammaglobulinemia), VOD (Veno-occlusive disease), WAS (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome), XLA (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Hefer D.
        • Jaloudi M.
        Thromboembolic events as an emerging adverse effect during high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in elderly patients: a case report and discussion of the relevant literature.
        Ann Hematol. 2004; 83: 661-665
        • Orange J.S.
        • Hossny E.M.
        • Weiler C.R.
        • Ballow M.
        • Berger M.
        • Bonilla F.A.
        • et al.
        Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in human disease: a review of evidence by members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 117: S525-S553
        • Hughes R.
        The role of IVIg in autoimmune neuropathies: the latest evidence.
        J Neurol. 2008; 255: 7-11
        • European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society
        European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of multifocal motor neuropathy. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society—first revision.
        J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2010; 15: 295-301
        • Dacci P.
        • Riva N.
        • Scarlato M.
        • Andresen I.
        • Schmidt D.
        • Comi G.
        • et al.
        Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy for the treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy: a case report.
        Neurol Sci. 2010; 31: 829-831
        • Danieli M.G.
        • Pettinari L.
        • Moretti R.
        • Logullo F.
        • Gabrielli A.
        Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a novel application.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2011; 10: 144-149
        • Harbo T.
        • Andersen H.
        • Hess A.
        • Hansen K.
        • Sindrup S.H.
        • Jakobsen J.
        Subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin in multifocal motor neuropathy: a randomized, single-blinded cross-over trial.
        Eur J Neurol. 2009; 16: 631-638
        • Ammann A.J.
        • Ashman R.F.
        • Buckley R.H.
        • Hardie W.R.
        • Krantmann H.J.
        • Nelson J.
        • et al.
        Use of intravenous gamma-globulin in antibody immunodeficiency: results of a multicenter controlled trial.
        Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1982; 22: 60-67
        • Buckley R.H.
        • Schiff R.I.
        The use of intravenous immune globulin in immunodeficiency diseases.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 110-117
        • Al-Herz W.
        • Bousfiha A.
        • Casanova J.L.
        • Chatila T.
        • Conley M.E.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • et al.
        Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update on the classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency.
        Front Immunol. 2014; 5: 162
        • Gelfand E.W.
        • Ochs H.D.
        • Shearer W.T.
        Controversies in IgG replacement therapy in patients with antibody deficiency diseases.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013; 131: 1001-1005
        • Stiehm E.R.
        • Orange J.S.
        • Ballow M.
        • Lehman H.
        Therapeutic use of immunoglobulins.
        Adv Pediatr. 2010; 57: 185-218
        • Lederman H.M.
        • Winkelstein J.A.
        X-linked agammaglobulinemia: an analysis of 96 patients.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 1985; 64: 145-156
        • Quartier P.
        • Debre M.
        • De Blic J.
        • de Sauverzac R.
        • Sayegh N.
        • Jabado N.
        • et al.
        Early and prolonged intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in childhood agammaglobulinemia: a retrospective survey of 31 patients.
        J Pediatr. 1999; 134: 589-596
        • Liese J.G.
        • Wintergerst U.
        • Tympner K.D.
        • Belohradsky B.H.
        High- vs low-dose immunoglobulin therapy in the long-term treatment of X-linked agammaglobulinemia.
        Am J Dis Child. 1992; 146: 335-339
        • Orange J.S.
        • Grossman W.J.
        • Navickis R.J.
        • Wilkes M.M.
        Impact of trough IgG on pneumonia incidence in primary immunodeficiency: A meta-analysis of clinical studies.
        Clin Immunol. 2010; 137: 21-30
        • Buckley R.H.
        B-cell function in severe combined immunodeficiency after stem cell or gene therapy: a review.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010; 125: 790-797
        • Serana F.
        • Sottini A.
        • Chiarini M.
        • Zanotti C.
        • Ghidini C.
        • Lanfranchi A.
        • et al.
        The different extent of B and T cell immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapies in SCID patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency.
        J Immunol. 2010; 185: 7713-7722
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • Siegal F.P.
        • Smithwick E.M.
        • Lion-Boule A.
        • Cunningham-Rundles S.
        • O'Malley J.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in primary humoral immunodeficiency disease.
        Ann Intern Med. 1984; 101: 435-439
        • Nolte M.T.
        • Pirofsky B.
        • Gerritz G.A.
        • Golding B.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for antibody deficiency.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 1979; 36: 237-243
        • Roifman C.M.
        • Lederman H.M.
        • Lavi S.
        • Stein L.D.
        • Levison H.
        • Gelfand E.W.
        Benefit of intravenous IgG replacement in hypogammaglobulinemic patients with chronic sinopulmonary disease.
        Am J Med. 1985; 79: 171-174
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • Bodian C.
        Common variable immunodeficiency: clinical and immunological features of 248 patients.
        Clin Immunol. 1999; 92: 34-48
        • Thickett K.M.
        • Kumararatne D.S.
        • Banerjee A.K.
        • Dudley R.
        • Stableforth D.E.
        Common variable immune deficiency: respiratory manifestations, pulmonary function and high-resolution CT scan findings.
        QJM. 2002; 95: 655-662
        • Busse P.J.
        • Razvi S.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in the prevention of pneumonia in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002; 109: 1001-1004
        • de Gracia J.
        • Vendrell M.
        • Alvarez A.
        • Pallisa E.
        • Rodrigo M.J.
        • de la Rosa D.
        • et al.
        Immunoglobulin therapy to control lung damage in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.
        Int Immunopharmacol. 2004; 4: 745-753
        • Levy J.
        • Espanol-Boren T.
        • Thomas C.
        • Fischer A.
        • Tovo P.
        • Bordigoni P.
        • et al.
        Clinical spectrum of X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.
        J Pediatr. 1997; 131: 47-54
        • Quartier P.
        • Bustamante J.
        • Sanal O.
        • Plebani A.
        • Debre M.
        • Deville A.
        • et al.
        Clinical, immunologic and genetic analysis of 29 patients with autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome due to activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiency.
        Clin Immunol. 2004; 110: 22-29
        • Winkelstein J.A.
        • Marino M.C.
        • Lederman H.M.
        • Jones S.M.
        • Sullivan K.
        • Burks A.W.
        • et al.
        X-linked agammaglobulinemia: report on a United States registry of 201 patients.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2006; 85: 193-202
        • Winkelstein J.A.
        • Marino M.C.
        • Ochs H.
        • Fuleihan R.
        • Scholl P.R.
        • Geha R.
        • et al.
        The X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome: clinical and immunologic features of 79 patients.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2003; 82: 373-384
        • Lucas M.
        • Lee M.
        • Lortan J.
        • Lopez-Granados E.
        • Misbah S.
        • Chapel H.
        Infection outcomes in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders: relationship to immunoglobulin therapy over 22 years.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010; 125: 1354-1360.e4
        • Shehata N.
        • Palda V.
        • Bowen T.
        • Haddad E.
        • Issekutz T.B.
        • Mazer B.
        • et al.
        The use of immunoglobulin therapy for patients with primary immune deficiency: an evidence-based practice guideline.
        Transfus Med Rev. 2010; 24: S28-S50
        • Chapel H.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        Update in understanding common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs) and the management of patients with these conditions.
        Br J Haematol. 2009; 145: 709-727
        • Ameratunga R.
        • Woon S.T.
        • Gillis D.
        • Koopmans W.
        • Steele R.
        New diagnostic criteria for common variable immune deficiency (CVID), which may assist with decisions to treat with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 2013; 174: 203-211
        • Bonilla F.A.
        • Barlan I.
        • Chapel H.
        • Costa-Carvalho B.T.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • de la Morena M.T.
        • et al.
        International Consensus (ICON) document: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016; 4: 38-59
        • Bonilla F.A.
        • Bernstein I.L.
        • Khan D.A.
        • Ballas Z.K.
        • Chinen J.
        • Frank M.M.
        • et al.
        Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005; 94: S1-S63
        • Orange J.
        • Ballow M.
        • Stiehm E.
        • Ballas Z.
        • Chinen J.
        • De La Morena M.
        • et al.
        Use and interpretation of diagnostic vaccination in primary immunodeficiency: a working group report of the Basic and Clinical Immunology Interest Section of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012; 130: S1-S24
        • Schroeder Jr., H.W.
        • Dougherty C.J.
        Review of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy trials for primary humoral immunodeficiency patients.
        Infection. 2012; 40: 601-611
        • Ortigas A.P.
        • Leiva L.E.
        • Moore C.
        • Bradford N.
        • Sorensen R.U.
        Natural history of specific antibody deficiency after IgG replacement therapy.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999; 82: 71
        • Wolpert J.
        • Knutsen A.
        Natural history of selective antibody deficiency to bacterial polysaccharide antigens in children.
        Pediatr Asthma Allergy Immunol. 1998; 12: 183-191
        • Dorsey M.J.
        • Orange J.S.
        Impaired specific antibody response and increased B-cell population in transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006; 97: 590-595
        • Duse M.
        • Iacobini M.
        • Leonardi L.
        • Smacchia P.
        • Antonetti L.
        • Giancane G.
        Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy: intravenous immunoglobulin as first line therapy.
        Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010; 23: 349-353
        • Memmedova L.
        • Azarsiz E.
        • Edeer Karaca N.
        • Aksu G.
        • Kutukculer N.
        Does intravenous immunoglobulin therapy prolong immunodeficiency in transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy?.
        Pediatr Rep. 2013; 5: e14
        • Kaplan B.
        • Kopyltsova Y.
        • Khokhar A.
        • Lam F.
        • Bonagura V.
        Rituximab and immune deficiency: case series and review of the literature.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014; 2: 594-600
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        How I treat common variable immune deficiency.
        Blood. 2010; 116: 7-15
        • Abdou N.I.
        • Greenwell C.A.
        • Mehta R.
        • Narra M.
        • Hester J.D.
        • Halsey J.F.
        Efficacy of intravenous gammaglobulin for immunoglobulin G subclass and/or antibody deficiency in adults.
        Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009; 149: 267-274
        • Abrahamian F.
        • Agrawal S.
        • Gupta S.
        Immunological and clinical profile of adult patients with selective immunoglobulin subclass deficiency: response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 2010; 159: 344-350
        • Olinder-Nielsen A.M.
        • Granert C.
        • Forsberg P.
        • Friman V.
        • Vietorisz A.
        • Bjorkander J.
        Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in 350 adults with IgG subclass deficiency and recurrent respiratory tract infections: a long-term follow-up.
        Scand J Infect Dis. 2007; 39: 44-50
        • Barlan I.
        • Geha R.
        • Schneider L.C.
        Therapy for patients with recurrent infections and low serum IgG3 levels.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993; 92: 353-355
        • Burks A.W.
        • Sampson H.A.
        • Buckley R.H.
        Anaphylactic reactions after gamma globulin administration in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Detection of IgE antibodies to IgA.
        N Engl J Med. 1986; 314: 560-564
        • Bjorkander J.
        • Hammarstrom L.
        • Smith C.I.
        • Buckley R.H.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • Hanson L.A.
        Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in patients with antibody deficiency syndromes and anti-IgA antibodies.
        J Clin Immunol. 1987; 7: 8-15
        • de Albuquerque Campos R.
        • Sato M.N.
        • da Silva Duarte A.J.
        IgG anti-IgA subclasses in common variable immunodeficiency and association with severe adverse reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
        J Clin Immunol. 2000; 20: 77-82
        • Rachid R.
        • Castells M.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • Bonilla F.A.
        Association of anti-IgA antibodies with adverse reactions to gamma-globulin infusion.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 128: 228-230
        • Rachid R.
        • Bonilla F.
        The role of anti-IgA antibodies in causing adverse reactions to gamma globulin infusion in immunodeficient patients: a comprehensive review of the literature.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012; 129: 628-634
        • Bonilla F.A.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin: adverse reactions and management.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008; 122: 1238-1239
        • Quinti I.
        • Soresina A.
        • Agostini C.
        • Spadaro G.
        • Matucci A.
        • Sfika I.
        • et al.
        Prospective study on CVID patients with adverse reactions to intravenous or subcutaneous IgG administration.
        J Clin Immunol. 2008; 28: 263-267
        • Leung D.Y.
        • Ambrosino D.M.
        • Arbeit R.D.
        • Newton J.L.
        • Geha R.S.
        Impaired antibody responses in the hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988; 81: 1082-1097
        • Sheerin K.A.
        • Buckley R.H.
        Antibody responses to protein, polysaccharide, and phiX174 antigens in the hypergammaglobulinemia E (hyper-IgE) syndrome.
        J Allery Clin Immunol. 1991; 87: 803-811
        • Brinkman D.M.
        • Jol-van der Zijde C.M.
        • ten Dam M.M.
        • Vossen J.M.
        • Osterhaus A.D.
        • Kroon F.P.
        • et al.
        Vaccination with rabies to study the humoral and cellular immune response to a T-cell dependent neoantigen in man.
        J Clin Immunol. 2003; 23: 528-538
        • van Zelm M.C.
        • Reisli I.
        • van der Burg M.
        • Castano D.
        • van Noesel C.J.
        • van Tol M.J.
        • et al.
        An antibody-deficiency syndrome due to mutations in the CD19 gene.
        N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 1901-1912
        • Bilora F.
        • Petrobelli F.
        • Boccioletti V.
        • Pomerri F.
        Moderate-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of Job's syndrome. Case report.
        Minerva Med. 2000; 91: 113-116
        • Wakim M.
        • Alazard M.
        • Yajima A.
        • Speights D.
        • Saxon A.
        • Stiehm E.R.
        High dose intravenous immunoglobulin in atopic dermatitis and hyper-IgE syndrome.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998; 81: 153-158
        • Ochs H.D.
        • Slichter S.J.
        • Harker L.A.
        • Von Behrens W.E.
        • Clark R.A.
        • Wedgwood R.J.
        The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: studies of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets.
        Blood. 1980; 55: 243-252
        • Sullivan K.E.
        • Mullen C.A.
        • Blaese R.M.
        • Winkelstein J.A.
        A multiinstitutional survey of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
        J Pediatr. 1994; 125: 876-885
        • Conley M.E.
        • Saragoussi D.
        • Notarangelo L.
        • Etzioni A.
        • Casanova J.L.
        An international study examining therapeutic options used in treatment of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
        Clin Immunol. 2003; 109: 272-277
        • Litzman J.
        • Jones A.
        • Hann I.
        • Chapel H.
        • Strobel S.
        • Morgan G.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy, and antibiotic prophylaxis in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
        Arch Dis Child. 1996; 75: 436-439
        • Northern Neonatal Nursing Initiative Trial Group
        Randomised trial of prophylactic early fresh-frozen plasma or gelatin or glucose in preterm babies: outcome at 2 years.
        Lancet. 1996; 348: 229-232
        • Nelson Jr., R.P.
        • Ballow M.
        26. Immunomodulation and immunotherapy: drugs, cytokines, cytokine receptors, and antibodies.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003; 111: S720-S743
        • Roifman C.M.
        • Levison H.
        • Gelfand E.W.
        High-dose versus low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in hypogammaglobulinaemia and chronic lung disease.
        Lancet. 1987; 1: 1075-1077
        • Davies E.G.
        Update on the management of the immunodeficiency in ataxia-telangiectasia.
        Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2009; 5: 565-575
        • Lavin M.F.
        • Gueven N.
        • Bottle S.
        • Gatti R.A.
        Current and potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ataxia-telangiectasia.
        Br Med Bull. 2007; 81-82: 129-147
        • Hansen D.A.
        • Robbins B.A.
        • Bylund D.J.
        • Piro L.D.
        • Saven A.
        • Ellison D.J.
        Identification of monoclonal immunoglobulins and quantitative immunoglobulin abnormalities in hairy cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
        Am J Clin Pathol. 1994; 102: 580-585
        • Cooperative Group for the Study of Immunoglobulin in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
        Intravenous immunoglobulin for the prevention of infection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
        N Engl J Med. 1988; 319: 902-907
        • Weeks J.C.
        • Tierney M.R.
        • Weinstein M.C.
        Cost effectiveness of prophylactic intravenous immune globulin in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 81-86
        • Stiehm E.R.
        New uses for intravenous immune globulin.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 123-125
        • Raanani P.
        • Gafter-Gvili A.
        • Paul M.
        • Ben-Bassat I.
        • Leibovici L.
        • Shpilberg O.
        Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma: systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Leuk Lymphoma. 2009; 50: 764-772
        • Dhalla F.
        • Lucas M.
        • Schuh A.
        • Bhole M.
        • Jain R.
        • Patel S.Y.
        • et al.
        Antibody deficiency secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Should patients be treated with prophylactic replacement immunoglobulin?.
        J Clin Immunol. 2014; 34: 277-282
        • O'Brien S.
        • del Giglio A.
        • Keating M.
        Advances in the biology and treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
        Blood. 1995; 85: 307-318
        • Winkelstein A.
        • Jordan P.S.
        Immune deficiencies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma.
        Clin Rev Allergy. 1992; 10: 39-58
        • Chapel H.M.
        • Lee M.
        The use of intravenous immune globulin in multiple myeloma.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 1994; 97: 21-24
        • Chapel H.M.
        • Lee M.
        • Hargreaves R.
        • Pamphilon D.H.
        • Prentice A.G.
        Randomised trial of intravenous immunoglobulin as prophylaxis against infection in plateau-phase multiple myeloma. The UK Group for Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Multiple Myeloma.
        Lancet. 1994; 343: 1059-1063
        • Musto P.
        • Brugiatelli M.
        • Carotenuto M.
        Prophylaxis against infections with intravenous immunoglobulins in multiple myeloma.
        Br J Haematol. 1995; 89: 945-946
        • Khalafallah A.
        • Maiwald M.
        • Cox A.
        • Burns D.
        • Bates G.
        • Hannan T.
        • et al.
        Effect of immunoglobulin therapy on the rate of infections in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation or treated with immunomodulatory agents.
        Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2010; 2: e2010005
        • Kobold S.
        • Luetkens T.
        • Bartels B.M.
        • Cao Y.
        • Hildebrandt Y.
        • Sezer O.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal analysis of tetanus- and influenza-specific IgG antibodies in myeloma patients.
        Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012: 134081
        • Blombery P.
        • Prince H.M.
        • Worth L.J.
        • Main J.
        • Yang M.
        • Wood E.M.
        • et al.
        Prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin during autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma is not associated with reduced infectious complications.
        Ann Hematol. 2011; 90: 1167-1172
        • Park S.
        • Jung C.W.
        • Jang J.H.
        • Kim S.J.
        • Kim W.S.
        • Kim K.
        Incidence of infection according to intravenous immunoglobulin use in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with multiple myeloma.
        Transpl Infect Dis. 2015; 17: 679-687
        • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Intravenous Immunoglobulin Study Group
        Intravenous immune globulin for the prevention of bacterial infections in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 73-80
        • Mofenson L.M.
        • Moye Jr., J.
        • Korelitz J.
        • Bethel J.
        • Hirschhorn R.
        • Nugent R.
        Crossover of placebo patients to intravenous immunoglobulin confirms efficacy for prophylaxis of bacterial infections and reduction of hospitalizations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Intravenous Immunoglobulin Clinical Trial Study Group.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994; 13: 477-484
        • Spector S.A.
        • Gelber R.D.
        • McGrath N.
        • Wara D.
        • Barzilai A.
        • Abrams E.
        • et al.
        A controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin for the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children receiving zidovudine for advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 331: 1181-1187
        • Grisaru-Soen G.
        • Lau W.
        • Arneson C.
        • Louch D.
        • Bitnun A.
        • Stephens D.
        • et al.
        Randomized controlled trial of short-term withdrawal of i.v. immunoglobulin therapy for selected children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
        Pediatr Int. 2007; 49: 972-977
        • Huang L.C.
        • Myer L.
        • Jaspan H.B.
        The role of polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin in treating HIV-infected children with severe bacterial infections: a retrospective cohort study.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2008; 8: 127
        • Ohlsson A.
        • Lacy J.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin for suspected or subsequently proven infection in neonates.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; 1: CD001239
        • Bussel J.B.
        Intravenous gammaglobulin in the prophylaxis of late sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants: preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
        Rev Infect Dis. 1990; 12 (discussion S61-2): S457-S461
        • Sandberg K.
        • Fasth A.
        • Berger A.
        • Eibl M.
        • Isacson K.
        • Lischka A.
        • et al.
        Preterm infants with low immunoglobulin G levels have increased risk of neonatal sepsis but do not benefit from prophylactic immunoglobulin G.
        J Pediatr. 2000; 137: 623-628
        • Ohlsson A.
        • Lacy J.B.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin for preventing infection in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 7: CD000361
        • Ginaldi L.
        • De Martinis M.
        • D'Ostilio A.
        • Marini L.
        • Loreto M.F.
        • Corsi M.P.
        • et al.
        The immune system in the elderly: I. Specific humoral immunity.
        Immunol Res. 1999; 20: 101-108
        • Ongradi J.
        • Kovesdi V.
        Numerical alterations of ageing B lymphocyte subsets.
        Acta Physiol Hung. 2011; 98: 99-104
        • Ongradi J.
        • Stercz B.
        • Kovesdi V.
        • Vertes L.
        Immunosenescence and vaccination of the elderly II. New strategies to restore age-related immune impairment.
        Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2009; 56: 301-312
        • Frasca D.
        • Blomberg B.B.
        Aging affects human B cell responses.
        J Clin Immunol. 2011; 31: 430-435
        • Lee H.
        • Nahm M.H.
        • Kim K.H.
        The effect of age on the response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2010; 10: 60
        • Fata F.T.
        • Herzlich B.C.
        • Schiffman G.
        • Ast A.L.
        Impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide in elderly patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels.
        Ann Intern Med. 1996; 124: 299-304
        • Siegel J.
        The product: All intravenous immunoglobulins are not equivalent.
        Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 25: 78S-84S
        • Ming J.E.
        • Graham J.M.
        Genetic disorders, including syndromic immunodeficiencies.
        in: Stiehm E.R. Ochs H.D. Winklestein J.A. Rich E. Immunologic disorders in infants and children. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa2004: 785-819
        • Ming J.E.
        • Stiehm E.R.
        Genetic syndromic immunodeficiencies with antibody defects.
        Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008; 28 (vii): 715-736
        • Picard C.
        • Al-Herz W.
        • Bousfiha A.
        • Casanova J.L.
        • Chatila T.
        • Conley M.E.
        • et al.
        Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update on the classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency 2015.
        J Clin Immunol. 2015; 35: 696-726
      1. NIH consensus conference. Intravenous immunoglobulin. Prevention and treatment of disease.
        JAMA. 1990; 264: 3189-3193
        • Cordonnier C.
        • Chevret S.
        • Legrand M.
        • Rafi H.
        • Dhedin N.
        • Lehmann B.
        • et al.
        Should immunoglobulin therapy be used in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation? A randomized, double-blind, dose effect, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.
        Ann Intern Med. 2003; 139: 8-18
        • Sokos D.R.
        • Berger M.
        • Lazarus H.M.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin: appropriate indications and uses in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
        Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2002; 8: 117-130
        • Sullivan K.M.
        Immunoglobulin therapy in bone marrow transplantation.
        Am J Med. 1987; 83: 34-45
        • Sullivan K.M.
        • Kansu E.
        • Storer B.
        • Jocom J.
        • Emerson G.
        • Reagan T.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin and the risk of hepatic veno-occlusive disease after bone marrow transplantation.
        Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 1998; 4: 20-26
        • Sullivan K.M.
        • Kopecky K.J.
        • Jocom J.
        • Fisher L.
        • Buckner C.D.
        • Meyers J.D.
        • et al.
        Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in bone marrow transplantation.
        N Engl J Med. 1990; 323: 705-712
        • Sullivan K.M.
        • Storek J.
        • Kopecky K.J.
        • Jocom J.
        • Longton G.
        • Flowers M.
        • et al.
        A controlled trial of long-term administration of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent late infection and chronic graft-vs.-host disease after marrow transplantation: clinical outcome and effect on subsequent immune recovery.
        Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 1996; 2: 44-53
        • Winston D.J.
        • Antin J.H.
        • Wolff S.N.
        • Bierer B.E.
        • Small T.
        • Miller K.B.
        • et al.
        A multicenter, randomized, double-blind comparison of different doses of intravenous immunoglobulin for prevention of graft-versus-host disease and infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
        Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001; 28: 187-196
        • Wolff S.N.
        • Fay J.W.
        • Herzig R.H.
        • Greer J.P.
        • Dummer S.
        • Brown R.A.
        • et al.
        High-dose weekly intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent infections in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation or severe myelosuppressive therapy. A study of the American Bone Marrow Transplant Group.
        Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118: 937-942
        • Jamil M.O.
        • Mineishi S.
        State-of-the-art acute and chronic GVHD treatment.
        Int J Hematol. 2015; 101: 452-466
        • Anderson D.
        • Ali K.
        • Blanchette V.
        • Brouwers M.
        • Couban S.
        • Radmoor P.
        • et al.
        Guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for hematologic conditions.
        Transfus Med Rev. 2007; 21: S9-S56
        • Anasetti C.
        • Rybka W.
        • Sullivan K.M.
        • Banaji M.
        • Slichter S.J.
        Graft-v-host disease is associated with autoimmune-like thrombocytopenia.
        Blood. 1989; 73: 1054-1058
        • Khouri I.F.
        • Ippoliti C.
        • Gajewski J.
        • Przepiorka D.
        • Champlin R.E.
        Neutropenias following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: response to therapy with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Am J Hematol. 1996; 52: 313-315
        • Klumpp T.R.
        • Herman J.H.
        • Macdonald J.S.
        • Schnell M.K.
        • Mullaney M.
        • Mangan K.F.
        Autoimmune neutropenia following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
        Am J Hematol. 1992; 41: 215-217
        • Gelfand E.W.
        Intravenous immune globulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
        N Engl J Med. 2012; 367: 2015-2025
        • Jordan S.C.
        • Toyoda M.
        • Kahwaji J.
        • Vo A.A.
        Clinical aspects of intravenous immunoglobulin use in solid organ transplant recipients.
        Am J Transplant. 2011; 11: 196-202
        • Jordan S.C.
        • Toyoda M.
        • Vo A.A.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin a natural regulator of immunity and inflammation.
        Transplantation. 2009; 88: 1-6
        • Jordan S.C.
        • Tyan D.
        • Stablein D.
        • McIntosh M.
        • Rose S.
        • Vo A.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of intravenous immunoglobulin as an agent to lower allosensitization and improve transplantation in highly sensitized adult patients with end-stage renal disease: report of the NIH IG02 trial.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004; 15: 3256-3262
        • Montgomery R.A.
        • Zachary A.A.
        • Racusen L.C.
        • Leffell M.S.
        • King K.E.
        • Burdick J.
        • et al.
        Plasmapheresis and intravenous immune globulin provides effective rescue therapy for refractory humoral rejection and allows kidneys to be successfully transplanted into cross-match-positive recipients.
        Transplantation. 2000; 70: 887-895
        • Alachkar N.
        • Lonze B.E.
        • Zachary A.A.
        • Holechek M.J.
        • Schillinger K.
        • Cameron A.M.
        • et al.
        Infusion of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin fails to lower the strength of human leukocyte antigen antibodies in highly sensitized patients.
        Transplantation. 2012; 94: 165-171
        • Marfo K.
        • Ling M.
        • Bao Y.
        • Calder B.
        • Ye B.
        • Hayde N.
        • et al.
        Lack of effect in desensitization with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab in highly sensitized patients.
        Transplantation. 2012; 94: 345-351
        • Hachem R.R.
        • Yusen R.D.
        • Meyers B.F.
        • Aloush A.A.
        • Mohanakumar T.
        • Patterson G.A.
        • et al.
        Anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies and preemptive antibody-directed therapy after lung transplantation.
        J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010; 29: 973-980
        • Vo A.A.
        • Lukovsky M.
        • Toyoda M.
        • Wang J.
        • Reinsmoen N.L.
        • Lai C.H.
        • et al.
        Rituximab and intravenous immune globulin for desensitization during renal transplantation.
        N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 242-251
        • Vo A.A.
        • Peng A.
        • Toyoda M.
        • Kahwaji J.
        • Cao K.
        • Lai C.H.
        • et al.
        Use of intravenous immune globulin and rituximab for desensitization of highly HLA-sensitized patients awaiting kidney transplantation.
        Transplantation. 2010; 89: 1095-1102
        • Vo A.A.
        • Petrozzino J.
        • Yeung K.
        • Sinha A.
        • Kahwaji J.
        • Peng A.
        • et al.
        Efficacy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of desensitization using IVIG and rituximab.
        Transplantation. 2013; 95: 852-858
        • Zachary A.A.
        • Lucas D.P.
        • Montgomery R.A.
        • Leffell M.S.
        Rituximab prevents an anamnestic response in patients with cryptic sensitization to HLA.
        Transplantation. 2013; 95: 701-704
        • Loupy A.
        • Suberbielle-Boissel C.
        • Zuber J.
        • Anglicheau D.
        • Timsit M.O.
        • Martinez F.
        • et al.
        Combined posttransplant prophylactic IVIg/anti-CD 20/plasmapheresis in kidney recipients with preformed donor-specific antibodies: a pilot study.
        Transplantation. 2010; 89: 1403-1410
        • Casadei D.H.
        • del C.
        • Rial M.
        • Opelz G.
        • Golberg J.C.
        • Argento J.A.
        • Greco G.
        • et al.
        A randomized and prospective study comparing treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with monoclonal antibodies for rescue of kidney grafts with steroid-resistant rejection.
        Transplantation. 2001; 71: 53-58
        • Jordan S.C.
        • Quartel A.W.
        • Czer L.S.
        • Admon D.
        • Chen G.
        • Fishbein M.C.
        • et al.
        Posttransplant therapy using high-dose human immunoglobulin (intravenous gammaglobulin) to control acute humoral rejection in renal and cardiac allograft recipients and potential mechanism of action.
        Transplantation. 1998; 66: 800-805
        • Jordan S.C.
        • Reinsmoen N.
        • Peng A.
        • Lai C.H.
        • Cao K.
        • Villicana R.
        • et al.
        Advances in diagnosing and managing antibody-mediated rejection.
        Pediatr Nephrol. 2010; 25 (quiz 45-8): 2035-2045
        • Lefaucheur C.
        • Nochy D.
        • Andrade J.
        • Verine J.
        • Gautreau C.
        • Charron D.
        • et al.
        Comparison of combination plasmapheresis/IVIg/anti-CD20 versus high-dose IVIg in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection.
        Am J Transplant. 2009; 9: 1099-1107
        • Nahirniak S.
        • Hume H.A.
        Guidelines for the use of immunoglobulin therapy for primary immune deficiency and solid organ transplantation.
        Transfus Med Rev. 2010; 24: S1-S6
        • Kuypers D.R.
        Management of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients.
        Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012; 8: 390-402
        • Kahwaji J.
        • Barker E.
        • Pepkowitz S.
        • Klapper E.
        • Villicana R.
        • Peng A.
        • et al.
        Acute hemolysis after high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in highly HLA sensitized patients.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009; 4: 1993-1997
        • Vo A.A.
        • Cam V.
        • Toyoda M.
        • Puliyanda D.P.
        • Lukovsky M.
        • Bunnapradist S.
        • et al.
        Safety and adverse events profiles of intravenous gammaglobulin products used for immunomodulation: a single-center experience.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 1: 844-852
        • Casulo C.
        • Maragulia J.
        • Zelenetz A.D.
        Incidence of hypogammaglobulinemia in patients receiving rituximab and the use of intravenous immunoglobulin for recurrent infections.
        Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2013; 13: 106-111
        • Compagno N.
        • Cinetto F.
        • Semenzato G.
        • Agostini C.
        Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in lymphoproliferative disorders and rituximab-related secondary hypogammaglobulinemia: a single-center experience in 61 patients.
        Haematologica. 2014; 99: 1101-1106
        • Cooper N.
        • Davies E.G.
        • Thrasher A.J.
        Repeated courses of rituximab for autoimmune cytopenias may precipitate profound hypogammaglobulinaemia requiring replacement intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Br J Haematol. 2009; 146: 120-122
        • Makatsori M.
        • Kiani-Alikhan S.
        • Manson A.L.
        • Verma N.
        • Leandro M.
        • Gurugama N.P.
        • et al.
        Hypogammaglobulinaemia after rituximab treatment-incidence and outcomes.
        QJM. 2014; 107: 821-828
        • Marco H.
        • Smith R.M.
        • Jones R.B.
        • Guerry M.J.
        • Catapano F.
        • Burns S.
        • et al.
        The effect of rituximab therapy on immunoglobulin levels in patients with multisystem autoimmune disease.
        BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014; 15: 178
        • Seppanen M.
        Immunoglobulin G treatment of secondary immunodeficiencies in the era of novel therapies.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 2014; 178: 10-13
        • Duraisingham S.S.
        • Buckland M.S.
        • Grigoriadou S.
        • Longhurst H.J.
        Secondary antibody deficiency.
        Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014; 10: 583-591
        • Mulhearn B.
        • Bruce I.N.
        Indications for IVIG in rheumatic diseases.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015; 54: 383-391
        • Duru F.
        • Fisgin T.
        • Yarali N.
        • Kara A.
        Clinical course of children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura treated with intravenous immunoglobulin G or megadose methylprednisolone or observed without therapy.
        Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002; 19: 219-225
        • Sandoval C.
        • Visintainer P.
        • Ozkaynak M.F.
        • Tugal O.
        • Jayabose S.
        Clinical features and treatment outcomes of 79 infants with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
        Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004; 42: 109-112
        • Tarantino M.D.
        Acute immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood.
        Blood Rev. 2002; 16: 19-21
        • Cooper N.
        • Stasi R.
        • Cunningham-Rundles S.
        • Feuerstein M.A.
        • Leonard J.P.
        • Amadori S.
        • et al.
        The efficacy and safety of B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
        Br J Haematol. 2004; 125: 232-239
        • Fujisawa K.
        • Iyori H.
        • Ohkawa H.
        • Konishi S.
        • Bessho F.
        • Shirahata A.
        • et al.
        A prospective, randomized trial of conventional, dose-accelerated corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin in children with newly diagnosed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
        Intl J Hematol. 2000; 72: 376-383
        • Godeau B.
        • Chevret S.
        • Varet B.
        • Lefrere F.
        • Zini J.M.
        • Bassompierre F.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin or high-dose methylprednisolone, with or without oral prednisone, for adults with untreated severe autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: a randomised, multicentre trial.
        Lancet. 2002; 359: 23-29
        • Hedlund-Treutiger I.
        • Henter J.I.
        • Elinder G.
        Randomized study of IVIg and high-dose dexamethasone therapy for children with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
        J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003; 25: 139-144
        • Tarantino M.D.
        Treatment options for chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenia purpura in children.
        Semin Hematol. 2000; 37: 35-41
        • Despotovic J.
        • Lambert M.
        • Herman J.
        • Gernsheimer T.
        • McCrae K.
        • Tarantino M.
        • et al.
        RhIG for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia: consensus and controversy (CME).
        Transfusion. 2012; 52 ([Review]): 1126-1136
        • Lakshmanan S.
        • Cuker A.
        Contemporary management of primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults.
        J Thromb Haemost. 2012; 10 ([Review]): 1988-1998
        • Neunert C.
        • Lim W.
        • Crowther M.
        • Cohen A.
        • Solberg Jr., L.
        • Crowther M.A.
        • et al.
        The American Society of Hematology 2011 evidence-based practice guideline for immune thrombocytopenia.
        Blood. 2011; 117: 4190-4207
        • Provan D.
        • Stasi R.
        • Newland A.C.
        • Blanchette V.S.
        • Bolton-Maggs P.
        • Bussel J.B.
        • et al.
        International consensus report on the investigation and management of primary immune thrombocytopenia.
        Blood. 2010; 115: 168-186
        • Rodeghiero F.
        • Ruggeri M.
        ITP and international guidelines: what do we know, what do we need?.
        Presse Med. 2014; 43: e61-e67
        • Massey G.V.
        • McWilliams N.B.
        • Mueller D.G.
        • Napolitano A.
        • Maurer H.M.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia.
        J Pediatr. 1987; 111: 133-135
        • Birchall J.E.
        • Murphy M.F.
        • Kaplan C.
        • Kroll H.
        European collaborative study of the antenatal management of feto-maternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.
        Br J Haematol. 2003; 122: 275-288
        • Rayment R.
        • Brunskill S.J.
        • Stanworth S.
        • Soothill P.W.
        • Roberts D.J.
        • Murphy M.F.
        Antenatal interventions for fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; : CD004226
        • Ziman A.
        • Klapper E.
        • Pepkowitz S.
        • Smith R.
        • Garratty G.
        • Goldfinger D.
        A second case of post-transfusion purpura caused by HPA-5a antibodies: successful treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Vox Sang. 2002; 83: 165-166
        • Ohto H.
        • Yasuda H.
        • Maeda H.
        • Inaba S.
        Post-transfusion thrombocytopenia in recipients with anti-HLA antibody.
        Transfus Sci. 2000; 23: 271-273
        • Evenson D.A.
        • Stroncek D.F.
        • Pulkrabek S.
        • Perry E.H.
        • Radford J.
        • Miller J.S.
        • et al.
        Posttransfusion purpura following bone marrow transplantation.
        Transfusion. 1995; 35: 688-693
        • Kroll H.
        • Kiefel V.
        • Mueller-Eckhardt C.
        Clinical and serologic studies in 34 patients with post-transfusion purpura.
        Beitr Infusionsther. 1992; 30: 403-407
        • Kumar R.
        • Ghali A.
        • Ekaldious A.W.
        • Mahmoud O.I.
        • Al-Lumai A.S.
        Post-transfusion purpura: case report.
        Ann Hematol. 2001; 80: 488-491
        • Mueller-Eckhardt C.
        • Kiefel V.
        High-dose IgG for post-transfusion purpura-revisited.
        Blut. 1988; 57: 163-167
        • Song S.
        • Crow A.R.
        • Freedman J.
        • Lazarus A.H.
        Monoclonal IgG can ameliorate immune thrombocytopenia in a murine model of ITP: an alternative to IVIG.
        Blood. 2003; 101: 3708-3713
        • Moore J.C.
        • Arnold D.M.
        • Leber B.F.
        • Clare R.
        • Molnar G.J.
        • Kelton J.G.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin as an adjunct to plasma exchange for the treatment of chronic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
        Vox Sang. 2007; 93: 173-175
        • Teachey D.T.
        • Lambert M.P.
        Diagnosis and management of autoimmune cytopenias in childhood.
        Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013; 60: 1489-1511
        • Bussel J.
        • Lalezari P.
        • Hilgartner M.
        • Partin J.
        • Fikrig S.
        • O'Malley J.
        • et al.
        Reversal of neutropenia with intravenous gammaglobulin in autoimmune neutropenia of infancy.
        Blood. 1983; 62: 398-400
        • Bux J.
        • Behrens G.
        • Jaeger G.
        • Welte K.
        Diagnosis and clinical course of autoimmune neutropenia in infancy: analysis of 240 cases.
        Blood. 1998; 91: 181-186
        • Christensen R.D.
        • Brown M.S.
        • Hall D.C.
        • Lassiter H.A.
        • Hill H.R.
        Effect on neutrophil kinetics and serum opsonic capacity of intravenous administration of immune globulin to neonates with clinical signs of early-onset sepsis.
        J Pediatr. 1991; 118: 606-614
        • Kurtzberg J.
        • Friedman H.S.
        • Chaffee S.
        • Falletta J.M.
        • Kinney T.R.
        • Kurlander R.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of intravenous gamma globulin in autoimmune-mediated pediatric blood dyscrasias.
        Am J Med. 1987; 83: 4-9
        • Klumpp T.R.
        • Herman J.H.
        Autoimmune neutropenia after bone marrow transplantation.
        Blood. 1993; 82: 1035
        • Mascarin M.
        • Ventura A.
        Anti-Rh(D) immunoglobulin for autoimmune neutropenia of infancy.
        Acta Paediatr. 1993; 82: 142-144
        • Besa E.C.
        Rapid transient reversal of anemia and long-term effects of maintenance intravenous immunoglobulin for autoimmune hemolytic anemia in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.
        Am J Med. 1988; 84: 691-698
        • Hilgartner M.W.
        • Bussel J.
        Use of intravenous gamma globulin for the treatment of autoimmune neutropenia of childhood and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
        Am J Med. 1987; 83: 25-29
        • Flores G.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • Newland A.C.
        • Bussel J.B.
        Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia: results in 73 patients.
        Am J Hematol. 1993; 44: 237-242
        • Alpay F.
        High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in neonatal immune haemolytic jaundice.
        Acta Paediatr. 2000; 89: 371-372
        • Dagoglu T.
        • Ovali F.
        • Samanci N.
        • Bengisu E.
        High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for rhesus haemolytic disease.
        J Int Med Res. 1995; 23: 264-271
        • Rubo J.
        • Albrecht K.
        • Lasch P.
        • Laufkotter E.
        • Leititis J.
        • Marsan D.
        • et al.
        High-dose intravenous immune globulin therapy for hyperbilirubinemia caused by Rh hemolytic disease.
        J Pediatr. 1992; 121: 93-97
        • Alcock G.S.
        • Liley H.
        Immunoglobulin infusion for isoimmune haemolytic jaundice in neonates.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; : CD003313
        • Scaradavou A.
        • Bussel J.
        Evans syndrome. Results of a pilot study utilizing a multiagent treatment protocol.
        J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1995; 17: 290-295
        • Alliot C.
        • Barrios M.
        • Tabuteau S.
        • Desablens B.
        Autoimmune cytopenias associated with malignancies and successfully treated with intravenous immune globulins: about two cases.
        Therapie. 2000; 55: 371-374
        • Larroche C.
        • Mouthon L.
        • Casadevall N.
        • Le Roux G.
        • Casassus P.
        • Guillevin L.
        Successful treatment of thymoma-associated pure red cell aplasia with intravenous immunoglobulins.
        Eur J Haematol. 2000; 65: 74-76
        • Aharon A.
        • Levy Y.
        • Bar-Dayan Y.
        • Afek A.
        • Zandman-Goddard G.
        • Skurnik Y.
        • et al.
        Successful treatment of early secondary myelofibrosis in SLE with IVIG.
        Lupus. 1997; 6: 408-411
        • Blanchette V.S.
        • Kirby M.A.
        • Turner C.
        Role of intravenous immunoglobulin G in autoimmune hematologic disorders.
        Semin Hematol. 1992; 29: 72-82
        • Bossi P.
        • Cabane J.
        • Ninet J.
        • Dhote R.
        • Hanslik T.
        • Chosidow O.
        • et al.
        Acquired hemophilia due to factor VIII inhibitors in 34 patients.
        Am J Med. 1998; 105: 400-408
        • Sultan Y.
        Acquired hemophilia and its treatment.
        Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1997; 8: S15-S18
        • Stasi R.
        • Brunetti M.
        • Stipa E.
        • Amadori S.
        Selective B-cell depletion with rituximab for the treatment of patients with acquired hemophilia.
        Blood. 2004; 103: 4424-4428
        • Gianella-Borradori A.
        • Hirt A.
        • Luthy A.
        • Wagner H.P.
        • Imbach P.
        Haemophilia due to factor VIII inhibitors in a patient suffering from an autoimmune disease: treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. A case report.
        Blut. 1984; 48: 403-407
        • Sultan Y.
        • Kazatchkine M.D.
        • Maisonneuve P.
        • Nydegger U.E.
        Anti-idiotypic suppression of autoantibodies to factor VIII (antihaemophilic factor) by high-dose intravenous gammaglobulin.
        Lancet. 1984; 2: 765-768
        • Huth-Kuhne A.
        • Baudo F.
        • Collins P.
        • Ingerslev J.
        • Kessler C.M.
        • Levesque H.
        • et al.
        International recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with acquired hemophilia A.
        Haematologica. 2009; 94: 566-575
        • Collins P.
        • Baudo F.
        • Knoebl P.
        • Levesque H.
        • Nemes L.
        • Pellegrini F.
        • et al.
        Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).
        Blood. 2012; 120: 47-55
        • Dalakas M.C.
        Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies.
        Ann Neurol. 1995; 37: S74-S86
        • Cherin P.
        • Piette J.C.
        • Wechsler B.
        • Bletry O.
        • Ziza J.M.
        • Laraki R.
        • et al.
        Intravenous gamma globulin as first line therapy in polymyositis and dermatomyositis: an open study in 11 adult patients.
        J Rheumatol. 1994; 21: 1092-1097
        • Sansome A.
        • Dubowitz V.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin in juvenile dermatomyositis—four year review of nine cases.
        Arch Dis Child. 1995; 72: 25-28
        • Dalakas M.C.
        • Koffman B.
        • Fujii M.
        • Spector S.
        • Sivakumar K.
        • Cupler E.
        A controlled study of intravenous immunoglobulin combined with prednisone in the treatment of IBM.
        Neurology. 2001; 56: 323-327
        • Dalakas M.C.
        • Sonies B.
        • Dambrosia J.
        • Sekul E.
        • Cupler E.
        • Sivakumar K.
        Treatment of inclusion-body myositis with IVIg: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
        Neurology. 1997; 48: 712-716
        • Patwa H.S.
        • Chaudhry V.
        • Katzberg H.
        • Rae-Grant A.D.
        • So Y.T.
        Evidence-based guideline: intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
        Neurology. 2012; 78: 1009-1015
        • Ballow M.
        Mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and potential use in autoimmune connective tissue diseases.
        Cancer. 1991; 68: 1430-1436
        • Becker H.
        • Mitropoulou G.
        • Helmke K.
        Immunomodulating therapy of rheumatoid arthritis by high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Klin Wochenschr. 1989; 67: 286-290
        • Moriya Y.
        • Yamaji K.
        • Kanai Y.
        • Tsuda H.
        The effectiveness of intravenous human immunoglobulin treatment after plasmapheresis in restoring serum immunoglobulin levels: a preliminary study.
        Ther Apher. 2002; 6: 154-158
        • Sany J.
        • Clot J.
        • Bonneau M.
        • Andary M.
        Immunomodulating effect of human placenta-eluted gamma globulins in rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1982; 25: 17-24
        • Savery F.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of rheumatoid arthritis-associated immunodeficiency.
        Clin Ther. 1988; 10: 527-529
        • Tumiati B.
        • Casoli P.
        • Veneziani M.
        • Rinaldi G.
        High-dose immunoglobulin therapy as an immunomodulatory treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1992; 35: 1126-1133
        • Kanik K.S.
        • Yarboro C.H.
        • Naparstek Y.
        • Plotz P.H.
        • Wilder R.L.
        Failure of low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy to suppress disease activity in patients with treatment-refractory rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1996; 39: 1027-1029
        • Harville T.O.
        Rheumatologic disorders.
        in: Rudolph A.B. Hoffman J.I.E. Rudolph C.D. Rudolph's textbook of pediatrics. 21st ed. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Conn1996: 485-498
        • Horneff G.
        Update on biologicals for treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
        Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013; 13: 361-376
        • Uziel Y.
        • Laxer R.M.
        • Schneider R.
        • Silverman E.D.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in systemic onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a followup study.
        J Rheumatol. 1996; 23: 910-918
        • Giannini E.H.
        • Lovell D.J.
        • Silverman E.D.
        • Sundel R.P.
        • Tague B.L.
        • Ruperto N.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a phase I/II study. Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group.
        J Rheumatol. 1996; 23: 919-924
        • Prieur A.M.
        Intravenous immunoglobulins in Still's disease: still controversial, still unproven.
        J Rheumatol. 1996; 23: 797-800
        • Vignes S.
        • Wechsler B.
        • Amoura Z.
        • Papo T.
        • Frances C.
        • Huong D.L.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin in adult Still's disease refractory to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998; 16: 295-298
        • Breedveld F.C.
        • Brand A.
        • van Aken W.G.
        High dose intravenous gamma globulin for Felty's syndrome.
        J Rheumatol. 1985; 12: 700-702
        • Emmenegger U.
        • Frey U.
        • Reimers A.
        • Fux C.
        • Semela D.
        • Cottagnoud P.
        • et al.
        Hyperferritinemia as indicator for intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in reactive macrophage activation syndromes.
        Am J Hematol. 2001; 68: 4-10
        • Grom A.A.
        • Passo M.
        Macrophage activation syndrome in systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
        J Pediatr. 1996; 129: 630-632
        • Stephan J.L.
        • Kone-Paut I.
        • Galambrun C.
        • Mouy R.
        • Bader-Meunier B.
        • Prieur A.M.
        Reactive haemophagocytic syndrome in children with inflammatory disorders. A retrospective study of 24 patients.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001; 40: 1285-1292
        • Tristano A.G.
        • Casanova-Escalona L.
        • Torres A.
        • Rodriguez M.A.
        Macrophage activation syndrome in a patient with systemic onset rheumatoid arthritis: rescue with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
        J Clin Rheumatol. 2003; 9: 253-258
        • Chocova Z.
        • Hruskova Z.
        • Mareckova H.
        • Svobodova B.
        • Duskova D.
        • Bednarova V.
        • et al.
        Rituximab use in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis: clinical efficacy and impact on immunological parameters.
        Clin Rheumatol. 2015; 34: 107-115
        • Comarmond C.
        • Plaisier E.
        • Dahan K.
        • Mirault T.
        • Emmerich J.
        • Amoura Z.
        • et al.
        Anti TNF-alpha in refractory Takayasu's arteritis: cases series and review of the literature.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2012; 11: 678-684
        • Eleftheriou D.
        • Brogan P.A.
        Vasculitis in children.
        Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2009; 23: 309-323
        • Iannetti L.
        • Zito R.
        • Bruschi S.
        • Papetti L.
        • Ulgiati F.
        • Nicita F.
        • et al.
        Recent understanding on diagnosis and management of central nervous system vasculitis in children.
        Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012: 698327
        • Rosman Z.
        • Shoenfeld Y.
        • Zandman-Goddard G.
        Biologic therapy for autoimmune diseases: an update.
        BMC Med. 2013; 11: 88
        • Arnal C.
        • Piette J.C.
        • Leone J.
        • Taillan B.
        • Hachulla E.
        • Roudot-Thoraval F.
        • et al.
        Treatment of severe immune thrombocytopenia associated with systemic lupus erythematosus: 59 cases.
        J Rheumatol. 2002; 29: 75-83
        • Meissner M.
        • Sherer Y.
        • Levy Y.
        • Chwalinska-Sadowska H.
        • Langevitz P.
        • Shoenfeld Y.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with lupus serositis and nephritis.
        Rheumatol Int. 2000; 19: 199-201
        • Silvestris F.
        • D'Amore O.
        • Cafforio P.
        • Savino L.
        • Dammacco F.
        Intravenous immune globulin therapy of lupus nephritis: use of pathogenic anti-DNA-reactive IgG.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 1996; 104: 91-97
        • Levy L.M.
        • Dalakas M.C.
        • Floeter M.K.
        The stiff-person syndrome: an autoimmune disorder affecting neurotransmission of gamma-aminobutyric acid.
        Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131: 522-530
        • Lesprit P.
        • Mouloud F.
        • Bierling P.
        • Schaeffer A.
        • Cesaro P.
        • Brun-Buisson C.
        • et al.
        Prolonged remission of SLE-associated polyradiculoneuropathy after a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Scand J Rheumatol. 1996; 25: 177-179
        • Aharon A.
        • Zandman-Goddard G.
        • Shoenfeld Y.
        Autoimmune multiorgan involvement in elderly men is it SLE?.
        Clin Rheumatol. 1994; 13: 631-634
        • Pasatiempo A.M.
        • Kroser J.A.
        • Rudnick M.
        • Hoffman B.I.
        Acute renal failure after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
        J Rheumatol. 1994; 21: 347-349
        • Young A.
        • Khanna D.
        Systemic sclerosis: a systematic review on therapeutic management from 2011 to 2014.
        Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015; 27: 241-248
        • Takehara K.
        • Ihn H.
        • Sato S.
        A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013; 31: 151-156
        • Asano Y.
        • Ihn H.
        • Asashima N.
        • Yazawa N.
        • Mimura Y.
        • Jinnin M.
        • et al.
        A case of diffuse scleroderma successfully treated with high-dose intravenous immune globulin infusion.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005; 44: 824-826
        • Ihn H.
        • Mimura Y.
        • Yazawa N.
        • Jinnin M.
        • Asano Y.
        • Yamane K.
        • et al.
        High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin infusion as treatment for diffuse scleroderma.
        Br J Dermatol. 2007; 156: 1058-1060
        • Levy Y.
        • Amital H.
        • Langevitz P.
        • Nacci F.
        • Righi A.
        • Conforti L.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin modulates cutaneous involvement and reduces skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis: an open-label study.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 1005-1007
        • Rutter A.
        • Luger T.A.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin: an emerging treatment for immune-mediated skin diseases.
        Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2002; 3: 713-719
        • Wollina U.
        • Looks A.
        • Schneider R.
        • Maak B.
        Disabling morphoea of childhood-beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
        Clin Exp Dermatol. 1998; 23: 292-293
        • Ulmer A.
        • Kotter I.
        • Pfaff A.
        • Fierlbeck G.
        Efficacy of pulsed intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in mixed connective tissue disease.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002; 46: 123-127
        • Ballow M.
        • Parke A.
        The uses of intravenous immune globulin in collagen vascular disorders.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989; 84: 608-612
        • Gibson K.L.
        • Amamoo M.A.
        • Primack W.A.
        Corticosteroid therapy for Henoch Schonlein purpura.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 121 (author reply 1-2): 870-871
        • Weiss P.F.
        • Klink A.J.
        • Localio R.
        • Hall M.
        • Hexem K.
        • Burnham J.M.
        • et al.
        Corticosteroids may improve clinical outcomes during hospitalization for Henoch-Schonlein purpura.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: 674-681
        • Fagbemi A.A.
        • Torrente F.
        • Hilson A.J.
        • Thomson M.A.
        • Heuschkel R.B.
        • Murch S.H.
        Massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in isolated intestinal Henoch-Schonlein purpura with response to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion.
        Eur J Pediatr. 2007; 166: 915-919
        • De Maddi F.
        • Dinardo R.
        • Buonocore M.C.
        • Dinardo M.
        • Bartolomei B.
        • Rigante D.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin in Henoch-Schonlein purpura complicated by cerebral hemorrhage.
        Rheumatol Int. 2013; 33: 2451-2453
        • Asano Y.
        • Ihn H.
        • Maekawa T.
        • Kadono T.
        • Tamaki K.
        High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin infusion in polyarteritis nodosa: report on one case and review of the literature.
        Clin Rheumatol. 2006; 25: 396-398
        • Jerschow E.
        • De Vos G.S.
        • Hudes G.
        • Rubinstein A.
        • Lipsitz E.C.
        • Rosenstreich D.
        A case of common variable immunodeficiency syndrome associated with Takayasu arteritis.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007; 98: 196-199
        • Jordan S.C.
        Treatment of systemic and renal-limited vasculitic disorders with pooled human intravenous immune globulin.
        J Clin Immunol. 1995; 15: 76S-85S
        • Jayne D.R.
        • Esnault V.L.
        • Lockwood C.M.
        ANCA anti-idiotype antibodies and the treatment of systemic vasculitis with intravenous immunoglobulin.
        J Autoimmun. 1993; 6: 207-219
        • Levy Y.
        • Sherer Y.
        • George J.
        • Langevitz P.
        • Ahmed A.
        • Bar-Dayan Y.
        • et al.
        Serologic and clinical response to treatment of systemic vasculitis and associated autoimmune disease with intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Intl Arch Allergy Immunol. 1999; 119: 231-238
        • Richter W.O.
        • Donner M.G.
        • Schwandt P.
        Elimination of islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies II in a patient with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
        J Clin Apheresis. 1997; 12: 196-199
        • Heinze E.
        Immunoglobulins in children with autoimmune diabetes mellitus.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996; 14: S99-S102
        • Colagiuri S.
        • Leong G.M.
        • Thayer Z.
        • Antony G.
        • Dwyer J.M.
        • Kidson W.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for autoimmune diabetes mellitus.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996; 14: S93-S97
        • Salvi M.
        • Vannucchi G.
        • Curro N.
        • Campi I.
        • Covelli D.
        • Dazzi D.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of B-cell targeted therapy with rituximab in patients with active moderate to severe Graves' orbitopathy: a randomized controlled study.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100: 422-431
        • Kahaly G.
        • Pitz S.
        • Muller-Forell W.
        • Hommel G.
        Randomized trial of intravenous immunoglobulins versus prednisolone in Graves' ophthalmopathy.
        Clin Exp Immunol. 1996; 106: 197-202
        • Philipsen E.K.
        • Larsen S.
        • Helin P.
        A preliminary trial of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin to a patient with euthyroid ophthalmopathy.
        Thyroidology. 1989; 1: 93-95
        • Stan M.N.
        • Garrity J.A.
        • Bahn R.S.
        The evaluation and treatment of graves ophthalmopathy.
        Med Clin North Am. 2012; 96: 311-328
        • Prete M.
        • Dammacco R.
        • Fatone M.C.
        • Racanelli V.
        Autoimmune uveitis: clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic features.
        Clin Exp Med. 2016; 16: 125-136
        • Gallego-Pinazo R.
        • Dolz-Marco R.
        • Martinez-Castillo S.
        • Arevalo J.F.
        • Diaz-Llopis M.
        Update on the principles and novel local and systemic therapies for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis.
        Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2013; 12: 38-45
        • LeHoang P.
        • Cassoux N.
        • George F.
        • Kullmann N.
        • Kazatchkine M.D.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for the treatment of birdshot retinochoroidopathy.
        Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2000; 8: 49-57
        • Rosenbaum J.T.
        • George R.K.
        • Gordon C.
        The treatment of refractory uveitis with intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Am J Ophthalmol. 1999; 127: 545-549
        • Sahebjam F.
        • Vierling J.M.
        Autoimmune hepatitis.
        Front Med. 2015; 9: 187-219
        • Carmassi F.
        • Morale M.
        • Puccetti R.
        • Pistelli F.
        • Palla R.
        • Bevilacqua G.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a case of autoimmune-mediated chronic active hepatitis.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1992; 10: 13-17
        • Vierling J.M.
        • Flores P.A.
        Evolving new therapies of autoimmune hepatitis.
        Clin Liver Dis. 2002; 6 (ix): 825-850
        • Levine D.S.
        • Fischer S.H.
        • Christie D.L.
        • Haggitt R.C.
        • Ochs H.D.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for active, extensive, and medically refractory idiopathic ulcerative or Crohn's colitis.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1992; 87: 91-100
        • Barth J.
        • Winkler I.
        • Mollmann H.W.
        • Ulmer W.T.
        • Skvaril F.
        IgG-2 deficiency in asthmatic patients course of disease in four adults.
        Agents Actions Suppl. 1989; 28: 245-248
        • Hamilos D.L.
        • Young R.M.
        • Peter J.B.
        • Agopian M.S.
        • Ikle D.N.
        • Barka N.
        Hypogammaglobulinemia in asthmatic patients.
        Ann Allergy. 1992; 68: 472-481
        • Hanson L.A.
        • Soderstrom R.
        • Avanzini A.
        • Bengtsson U.
        • Bjorkander J.
        • Soderstrom T.
        Immunoglobulin subclass deficiency.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988; 7: S17-S21
        • Klaustermeyer W.B.
        • Wong S.C.
        • Schoettler J.J.
        • Gianos M.E.
        • Heiner D.C.
        Quantitative immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses in patients with corticosteroid-dependent reversible airway obstruction.
        Ann Allergy. 1989; 63: 327-330
        • Loftus B.G.
        • Price J.F.
        • Lobo-Yeo A.
        • Vergani D.
        IgG subclass deficiency in asthma.
        Arch Dis Child. 1988; 63: 1434-1437
        • Moss R.B.
        • Carmack M.A.
        • Esrig S.
        Deficiency of IgG4 in children: association of isolated IgG4 deficiency with recurrent respiratory tract infection.
        J Pediatr. 1992; 120: 16-21
        • Oxelius V.A.
        • Hanson L.A.
        • Bjorkander J.
        • Hammarstrom L.
        • Sjoholm A.
        IgG3 deficiency: common in obstructive lung disease. Hereditary in families with immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease.
        Monogr Allergy. 1986; 20: 106-115
        • Page R.
        • Friday G.
        • Stillwagon P.
        • Skoner D.
        • Caliguiri L.
        • Fireman P.
        Asthma and selective immunoglobulin subclass deficiency: improvement of asthma after immunoglobulin replacement therapy.
        J Pediatr. 1988; 112: 127-131
        • Schwartz H.J.
        • Berger M.
        Intravenous gamma-globulin therapy in bronchial asthma.
        Allergy Asthma Proc. 2002; 23: 15-18
        • Mazer B.D.
        • Gelfand E.W.
        An open-label study of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in severe childhood asthma.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991; 87: 976-983
        • Spahn J.D.
        • Leung D.Y.
        • Chan M.T.
        • Szefler S.J.
        • Gelfand E.W.
        Mechanisms of glucocorticoid reduction in asthmatic subjects treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999; 103: 421-426
        • Sigman K.
        • Ghibu F.
        • Sommerville W.
        • Toledano B.J.
        • Bastein Y.
        • Cameron L.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin inhibits IgE production in human B lymphocytes.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998; 102: 421-427
        • Zhuang Q.
        • Mazer B.
        Inhibition of IgE production in vitro by intact and fragmented intravenous immunoglobulin.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001; 108: 229-234
        • Haque S.
        • Boyce N.
        • Thien F.C.
        • O'Hehir R.E.
        • Douglass J.
        Role of intravenous immunoglobulin in severe steroid-dependent asthma.
        Intern Med J. 2003; 33: 341-344
        • Jakobsson T.
        • Croner S.
        • Kjellman N.I.
        • Pettersson A.
        • Vassella C.
        • Bjorksten B.
        Slight steroid-sparing effect of intravenous immunoglobulin in children and adolescents with moderately severe bronchial asthma.
        Allergy. 1994; 49: 413-420
        • Landwehr L.P.
        • Jeppson J.D.
        • Katlan M.G.
        • Esterl B.
        • McCormick D.
        • Hamilos D.L.
        • et al.
        Benefits of high-dose i.v. immunoglobulin in patients with severe steroid-dependent asthma.
        Chest. 1998; 114: 1349-1356
        • Kishiyama J.L.
        • Valacer D.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        • Sperber K.
        • Richmond G.W.
        • Abramson S.
        • et al.
        A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin for oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma.
        Clin Immunol. 1999; 91: 126-133
        • Niggemann B.
        • Leupold W.
        • Schuster A.
        • Schuster R.
        • v Berg A.
        • Grubl A.
        • et al.
        Prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study on the effect of high-dose, intravenous immunoglobulin in children and adolescents with severe bronchial asthma.
        Clin Exp Allergy. 1998; 28: 205-210
        • Salmun L.M.
        • Barlan I.
        • Wolf H.M.
        • Eibl M.
        • Twarog F.J.
        • Geha R.S.
        • et al.
        Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on steroid consumption in patients with severe asthma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999; 103: 810-815
        • Fiebiger E.
        • Maurer D.
        • Holub H.
        • Reininger B.
        • Hartmann G.
        • Woisetschlager M.
        • et al.
        Serum IgG autoantibodies directed against the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI: a selective marker and pathogenetic factor for a distinct subset of chronic urticaria patients?.
        J Clin Investig. 1995; 96: 2606-2612
        • Greaves M.W.
        Pathophysiology of chronic urticaria.
        Intl Arch Allergy Immunol. 2002; 127: 3-9
        • Kikuchi Y.
        • Kaplan A.P.
        Mechanisms of autoimmune activation of basophils in chronic urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001; 107: 1056-1062
        • Klote M.M.
        • Nelson M.R.
        • Engler R.J.
        Autoimmune urticaria response to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005; 94: 307-308
        • Pereira C.
        • Tavares B.
        • Carrapatoso I.
        • Loureiro G.
        • Faria E.
        • Machado D.
        • et al.
        Low-dose intravenous gammaglobulin in the treatment of severe autoimmune urticaria.
        Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007; 39: 237-242
        • Altschul A.
        • Cunningham-Rundles C.
        Chronic urticaria and angioedema as the first presentations of common variable immunodeficiency.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002; 110: 664-665
        • Asero R.
        Are IVIG for chronic unremitting urticaria effective?.
        Allergy. 2000; 55: 1099-1101
        • Hrabak T.
        • Calabria C.W.
        Multiple treatment cycles of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic spontaneous urticaria.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010; 105 (author reply 245-6): 245
        • Mitzel-Kaoukhov H.
        • Staubach P.
        • Muller-Brenne T.
        Effect of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in therapy-resistant chronic spontaneous urticaria.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010; 104: 253-258
        • O'Donnell B.F.
        • Barr R.M.
        • Black A.K.
        • Francis D.M.
        • Kermani F.
        • Niimi N.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune chronic urticaria.
        Br J Dermatol. 1998; 138: 101-106
        • Dawn G.
        • Urcelay M.
        • Ah-Weng A.
        • O'Neill S.M.
        • Douglas W.S.
        Effect of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in delayed pressure urticaria.
        Br J Dermatol. 2003; 149: 836-840
        • Adamski H.
        • Bedane C.
        • Bonnevalle A.
        • Thomas P.
        • Peyron J.L.
        • Rouchouse B.
        • et al.
        Solar urticaria treated with intravenous immunoglobulins.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011; 65: 336-340
        • Hughes R.
        • Cusack C.
        • Murphy G.M.
        • Kirby B.
        Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009; 34: e660-e662
        • Puech-Plottova I.
        • Michel J.L.
        • Rouchouse B.
        • Perrot J.L.
        • Dzviga C.
        • Cambazard F.
        [Solar urticaria: one case treated by intravenous immunoglobulin].
        Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2000; 127: 831-835
        • Darras S.
        • Segard M.
        • Mortier L.
        • Bonnevalle A.
        • Thomas P.
        [Treatment of solar urticaria by intravenous immunoglobulins and PUVA therapy].
        Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2004; 131: 65-69
        • Watkins C.
        • Peiris E.
        • Saleh H.
        • Krishnaswamy G.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin as a potential therapy for refractory urticaria—a review.
        Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2012; 11: 375-381
        • Wu K.C.
        • Jabbar-Lopez Z.K.
        Omalizumab, an Anti-IgE mAb, receives approval for the treatment of chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria.
        J Invest Dermatol. 2015; 135: 13-15
        • Jee S.J.
        • Kim J.H.
        • Baek H.S.
        • Lee H.B.
        • Oh J.W.
        Long-term efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for moderate to severe childhood atopic dermatitis.
        Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2011; 3: 89-95
        • Turner P.J.
        • Kakakios A.
        • Wong L.C.
        • Wong M.
        • Campbell D.E.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat severe atopic dermatitis in children: a case series.
        Pediatr Dermatol. 2012; 29: 177-181
        • Huang J.L.
        • Lee W.Y.
        • Chen L.C.
        • Kuo M.L.
        • Hsieh K.H.
        Changes of serum levels of interleukin-2, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 and Th1 and Th2 cell in severe atopic dermatitis after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000; 84: 345-352
        • Jolles S.
        • Hughes J.
        • Rustin M.
        The treatment of atopic dermatitis with adjunctive high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin: a report of three patients and review of the literature.
        Br J Dermatol. 2000; 142: 551-554
        • Jolles S.
        • Sewell C.
        • Webster D.
        • Ryan A.
        • Heelan B.
        • Waite A.
        • et al.
        Adjunctive high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for resistant atopic dermatitis: efficacy and effects on intracellular cytokine levels and CD4 counts.
        Acta Derm Venereol. 2003; 83: 433-437
        • Kimata H.
        High dose gammaglobulin treatment for atopic dermatitis.
        Arch Dis Child. 1994; 70: 335-336
        • Paul C.
        • Lahfa M.
        • Bachelez H.
        • Chevret S.
        • Dubertret L.
        A randomized controlled evaluator-blinded trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in adults with severe atopic dermatitis.
        Br J Dermatol. 2002; 147: 518-522
        • Galeotti C.
        • Bayry J.
        • Kone-Paut I.
        • Kaveri S.V.
        Kawasaki disease: aetiopathogenesis and therapeutic utility of intravenous immunoglobulin.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2010; 9: 441-448
        • Lloyd A.J.
        • Walker C.
        • Wilkinso M.
        Kawasaki disease: is it caused by an infectious agent?.
        Br J Biomed Sci. 2001; 58: 122-128
        • Sundel R.P.
        Update on the treatment of Kawasaki disease in childhood.
        Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2002; 4: 474-482
        • Tse S.M.
        • Silverman E.D.
        • McCrindle B.W.
        • Yeung R.S.
        Early treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with Kawasaki disease.
        J Pediatr. 2002; 140: 450-455
        • Muta H.
        • Ishii M.
        • Egami K.
        • Furui J.
        • Sugahara Y.
        • Akagi T.
        • et al.
        Early intravenous gamma-globulin treatment for Kawasaki disease: the nationwide surveys in Japan.
        J Pediatr. 2004; 144: 496-499
        • Newburger J.W.
        • Takahashi M.
        • Beiser A.S.
        • Burns J.C.
        • Bastian J.
        • Chung K.J.
        • et al.
        A single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 1633-1639
        • Oates-Whitehead R.
        • Baumer J.
        • Haines L.
        • Love S.
        • Maconochie I.
        • Gupta A.
        • et al.
        Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; 4: CD004000
        • Durongpisitkul K.
        • Gururaj V.J.
        • Park J.M.
        • Martin C.F.
        The prevention of coronary artery aneurysm in Kawasaki disease: a meta-analysis on the efficacy of aspirin and immunoglobulin treatment.
        Pediatrics. 1995; 96: 1057-1061
        • Son M.B.
        • Gauvreau K.
        • Ma L.
        • Baker A.L.
        • Sundel R.P.
        • Fulton D.R.
        • et al.
        Treatment of Kawasaki disease: analysis of 27 US pediatric hospitals from 2001 to 2006.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 124: 1-8
        • Burns J.C.
        • Capparelli E.V.
        • Brown J.A.
        • Newburger J.W.
        • Glode M.P.
        Intravenous gamma-globulin treatment and retreatment in Kawasaki disease. US/Canadian Kawasaki Syndrome Study Group.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998; 17: 1144-1148
        • Kobayashi T.
        • Inoue Y.
        • Takeuchi K.
        • Okada Y.
        • Tamura K.
        • Tomomasa T.
        • et al.
        Prediction of intravenous immunoglobulin unresponsiveness in patients with Kawasaki disease.
        Circulation. 2006; 113: 2606-2612
        • Kobayashi T.
        • Saji T.
        • Otani T.
        • Takeuchi K.
        • Nakamura T.
        • Arakawa H.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial.
        Lancet. 2012; 379: 1613-1620
        • Egami K.
        • Muta H.
        • Ishii M.
        • Suda K.
        • Sugahara Y.
        • Iemura M.
        • et al.
        Prediction of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with Kawasaki disease.
        J Pediatr. 2006; 149: 237-240
        • Kobayashi T.
        • Inoue Y.
        • Otani T.
        • Morikawa A.
        • Kobayashi T.
        • Takeuchi K.
        • et al.
        Risk stratification in the decision to include prednisolone with intravenous immunoglobulin in primary therapy of Kawasaki disease.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009; 28: 498-502
        • Sano T.
        • Kurotobi S.
        • Matsuzaki K.
        • Yamamoto T.
        • Maki I.
        • Miki K.
        • et al.
        Prediction of non-responsiveness to standard high-dose gamma-globulin therapy in patients with acute Kawasaki disease before starting initial treatment.
        Eur J Pediatr. 2007; 166: 131-137
        • Uehara R.
        • Belay E.D.
        • Maddox R.A.
        • Holman R.C.
        • Nakamura Y.
        • Yashiro M.
        • et al.
        Analysis of potential risk factors associated with nonresponse to initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment among Kawasaki disease patients in Japan.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008; 27: 155-160