Abbreviations used:ACQ (Asthma Control Questionnaire), COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), ICS (Inhaled corticosteroid), IMI (Innovative Medicine Initiative), LABA (Long-acting β2-agonist), OCS (Oral corticosteroid)
- Asthma.Lancet. 2013; 382: 1360-1372
- Difficult asthma.Eur Respir J. 1998; 12: 1209-1218
- Pathophysiology of severe asthma.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000; 106: 1033-1042
- Severe asthma: future treatments.Clin Exp Allergy. 2012; 42: 706-711
- Diagnosis and definition of severe refractory asthma: an international consensus statement from the Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI).Thorax. 2011; 66: 910-917
- Effect of a pharmacist intervention on asthma control. A cluster randomised trial.Respir Med. 2013; 107: 1346-1355
- International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma.Eur Respir J. 2014; 43: 343-373
- Prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour.J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008; 33: 17-23
- Identifying ‘well-controlled’ and ‘not well-controlled’ asthma using the Asthma Control Questionnaire.Respir Med. 2006; 100: 616-621
- The utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide suppression in the identification of nonadherence in difficult asthma.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012; 186: 1102-1108
- Predictors of incorrect inhalation technique in patients with asthma or COPD: a study using a validated videotaped scoring method.J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2010; 23: 323-328
RIVM, Nationaal Kompas Volksgezondheid. Astma, hoe vaak komt het voor en hoeveel mensen sterven eraan? 2004. Available at: http://www.nationaalkompas.nl/gezondheid-en-ziekte/ziekten-en-aandoeningen/ademhalingswegen/astma/omvang/. Accessed April 2013.
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Available at: http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=37296ned&D1=0,3-51&D2=61&HDR=G1&STB=T&VW=T. Accessed April 2013.
- Severe refractory asthma: an update.Eur Respir Rev. 2013; 22: 227-235
- The mechanisms, diagnosis, and management of severe asthma in adults.Lancet. 2006; 368: 780-793
- The relationship between clinical outcomes and medication adherence in difficult-to-control asthma.Thorax. 2012; 67: 751-753
- The prevalence of nonadherence in difficult asthma.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009; 180: 817-822
- Relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and poor outcomes among adults with asthma.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 114: 1288-1293
- Misuse of corticosteroid metered-dose inhaler is associated with decreased asthma stability.Eur Respir J. 2002; 19: 246-251
- Assessment of handling of inhaler devices in real life: an observational study in 3811 patients in primary care.J Aerosol Med. 2003; 16: 249-254
- Improved asthma outcomes with a simple inhaler technique intervention by community pharmacists.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007; 119: 1537-1538
- Exposure and sensitization to indoor allergens: association with lung function, bronchial reactivity, and exhaled nitric oxide measures in asthma.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003; 112: 362-368
- Influence of comorbid conditions on asthma.Eur Respir J. 2009; 33: 897-906
- Stability of asthma control with regular treatment: an analysis of the Gaining Optimal Asthma controL (GOAL) study.Allergy. 2008; 63: 932-938
- Effectiveness of pharmacist intervention for asthma control improvement.Eur Respir J. 2008; 31: 790-799
- Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the Severe Asthma Research Program.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010; 181: 315-323
- Severe asthma: lessons from the Severe Asthma Research Program.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007; 119: 14-21
Supported by Novartis Pharma B.V .
Disclosure of potential conflict of interest: This study was funded by Novartis . M. L. Bouvy's institution has received funding from the SIR Institute for Pharmacy Practice and Policy . E. H. Bel has received compensation for board membership from Novartis, as well as consultancy fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Regeneron, and CIPLA and has received or has grants pending from Chiesi and GlaxoSmithKline , from which she has also received payment for delivering lectures. The rest of the authors declare that they have no relevant conflicts of interest.