Abbreviations used:GLM (Generalized linear model), ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification), MEPS (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey)
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Supported by the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and supported in part by an appointment to the Research Participation Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education through an interagency agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Disclosure of potential conflict of interest: S. B. L. Barnett has received research support from the OakRidge Institute for Science and Education . T. A. Nurmagambetov has declared no conflict of interest.